Technical information:


Until 2006-12-04 I have been using a Novex KB microscope with 3 different eye-pieces (WF10, WF16 und WF20, 23,1 mm diameter) and 4 achromatic objectives (4x/0.10, 10x/0.25, 40x/0.65 and S100x/1.25 oil).

Since 2006-12-05 I am using a Zeiss Axiolab drb KT microscope with a binocular-tubus. I am using the following objectives:

2,5x/0,06 A-Plan
5x/0,12 CP-Achromat
10x/0,3 Ph1, Plan-Neofluar
20x/0,5 Ph2, Plan-Neofluar
40x/0,65 A-Plan
40x/0,75 Ph2, Plan-Neofluar
63x/0,8 Achroplan
100x/1,3 Plan-Neofluar, Oil

Since March 2012 my photomicrographs are taken via a tritubus (100/0).

In January 2003 I additionaly bought a stereomicroscope Novex RZB-SF with 2 different eye-pieces (WF10 und WF20). The zoomobjective has a magnification-range from 0,65x to 4,5x.


The fotos and videos dated up to 2005-04-30 have been shot with a Philips ToUCam Pro 740 (640x480 pixel). For this the webcam was fixed with a stand over the eye-piece.
The fotos and videos since 2005-05-01 have been shot with a Canon Powershot A85 (4 Megapixels). For this I was using an adapter that fixed the camera to the ocular-tube.
Sine December 2008 I was using a Canon Powershot G9 together with the Zeiss Universal-Adapter.
Sine October 2012 I am using a Canon EOS 600D together with the Askania 1,6x Adapter, mounted on the tritubus.

Microflash device:

Since July 2015 I am using a flash adaption designed by Jürgen Stahlschmidt, also called the "Stahlschmidt's Flashcube". A normal system flash, here a Canon Speedlight 270EX, is positioned just in front of a collector lens. The flash bulb is pictured in the aperture stop plane through the collector lens and a beam splitter, just like the original microscope lamp. The original microscope lighting can be used as a pilot light, because the flash adaption is positioned directly on the light outletport of the microscope. The total height of the flash cube is ca. 26 mm. Space, that nearly can be found at any microscope, even with a filterholder beneath the condensor.
More information on flash technique at the microscope can be found here: NWV-Hagen .

Thin sections:

Thin sections of Lichens and Mosses without using a microtom

With a little practice it is possible to obtain thin sections of satisfactory thickness by manual cutting. There is no need to buy an expensive microtom. Only a razor blade (cut in half), a stereomicroscope and PEG 1500 (polyethylenglycol) used as embedding medium is needed.
Begin with the dry material. Prior to cutting the dry material is placed into a 20 % aqueous solution of PEG 1500 for 24 h. Then the wet, with PEG-solution saturated, leaf or a part from it is laid on a slide. Allow to dry for 24 h. After that the material is impregnated with PEG and at the same time it is pasted a bit onto the slide.
Now we can start the cutting under the stereomicroscope. The left forefinger is laid on the material and once a relative broad piece is cut off along the fingertip. In this way a straight cutting edge is obtained and from this you begin. The left forefinger is now withdrawn a little bit or you just push the razor blade a bit tighter to your fingertip. Then cut off the thin section by moving the razor blade along your fingertip. A little practice is still needed and with the time you will develop a certain sensitiveness.
The sections are transferred into a 10 % solution of PEG 1500. This is to avoid a too quick dissolving of the PEG that could damage the section. Cross sections of lichens can be enclosed in Euparal without any staining. When dealing with mosses you might want stain the section and in this case the section investigated directly in water.

Literature concerning the embedding in PEG can be found here:

Wagner, R.: A description of my own practice in embedding in PEG can be dowloaded here: Einbettung biologischer Objekte in Polyethylenglykol (PEG)

There are several artcles on embedding in PEG In the "Mikrokosmos" journal:

Halle W (1959): Die Verwendung von wasserlöslichen Polywachsen als Einbettungsmittel in der histochemischen und histologischen Technik. Mikrokosmos Band 48, Seite 275
Türler S (1972): Ein ideales Einbettungsmittel? Erfolge und Schwierigkeiten mit Polyäthylenglykol. Mikrokosmos Band 61, Seite 91
Theiler R (1973): Polyäthylenglykol als Hilfsmittel beim Gefrierschneiden. Mikrokosmos Band 62, Seite 59
Krauter D (1979): Das Kosmos-Mikrotom. 3. Wahl der Objekte. Durchtränkung mit Paraffin oder Polyäthylenglykol. Mikrokosmos Band 68, Seite 144
Jentzen A (1988): Erfahrungen mit Histowachs. Mikrokosmos Band 77, Seite 57
Pareto A (1989): Rasches Einbettungsverfahren für krautige Pflanzenteile in Polyäthylenglykol. Mikrokosmos Band 78, Seite 255
Pareto A (1989): Polyethylenglykol als besonders gut geeignetes Einbettungsmedium für trockene Samenschalen von Leguminosen. Mikrokosmos Band 78, Seit 337
Gruber M (1989): Einbettung von Pflanzenteilen in Polyethylenglykol. Herstellung von perfekten Dünnschnitten mit dem Handmikrotom. Mikrokosmos Band 78, Seite 124

Thin sections using a microtome

Since April 2010 my thin sections are made with the aid of the "Jung Students-Microtome AB".


Jung Students-Microtome AB